Historical Development of microbiology
1. Louis Pasteur(1822-1895)
Louis Pasteur developed vaccine of hydrophobia. It marked as milestone in development of immunization.
2. Joseph Lister(1827-1912)
3. Robert koch (1843-1910)
(A) He perfected bacteriological techniques and introduced method of isolation of pure strains of bacteria.
(B) He introduced methods of obtaining bacteria in pure culture using solid media (agar-agar)
(C) He introduced staining techniques.
(D) He discoverd anthrax bacillus (1876), tubercle bacillus (1882) cholera vibrio (1883).
koch postulates – koch postulates are the conditions which was fulfilled by the causative agents of infectious disease. if this conditions are not fulfilled by the micro organism it cant be considered as causative agents for the specific disease. These are as follows-
(A) the organism should be constantly associated with the lesions of disease
(B) it should be possible to isolate organism in pure culture media from the lesions of the disease
(C) it should produced is similar disease in laboratory animal.
(D) same organism should be found from the lesions produced in the laboratory animals
(E) An additional criteria is introduced subsequently requires that there should be the presence of specific antibody in the serum of patient against the organism.
It is not always possible to satisfy all the postulate in every case lepra bacillus is an important example of not fulfilling the Koch’s postulate
Koch’s phenomenon – Robert koch observed that guineapig already infected with tubercle bacillus responded with exaggerated inflammatory response when injected with the tubercle bacillus or its protein. This hypersensitivity reaction is called Koch’s phenomenon.
4. Paul Ehrlich – His contributions are as follows
(1) Applied stains to cells and tissues for study their functions.
(2) reported the acid fast nature of tubercle bacillus.
(3) proposed side chain theory of antibody production.
(4) discovered salvarsan- magic bullet which is arsenic compound destroys spirochete of syphllis.
Later he discovered neo-salvarsan and thus he created a new branch of medicine known as chemotherapy.