Historical Development of microbiology | microbiology | louis pasteur | joseph lister | robert koch | paul ehrlich.

         Historical Development of microbiology

Before we discuss about the history of microbiology we should know the definition of microbiology. It is the science of  organisms which  we can’t see by our naked eyes. Many scientist give wings to the development of microbiology. We are discussing here about the “father of microbiology” Louis Pasteur, “father of antiseptic surgery “_ Joseph Lister “father of bacteriology”_ Robert Koch and “father of chemotherapy” Paul Ehrlich. Let’s start-

1. Louis Pasteur(1822-1895)

Louis Pasteur(1822-1895)
Louis Pasteru(1822-1895)

 

He was a trained chemist of france he established that fermentation was caused by microbial agents.
 
He is also known as father of microbiology 
 
Important Contribution of Pasteur in microbiology-
(a) He developed methods and techniques of bacteriology.
(b) He proved that microbes are also arosed from their like and not de navo.
(c) Introduction of sterilization techniques and development of steam sterilizer, autoclave and hot air oven.
(d) live vaccine –  He attenuated the anthrax bacillus by incubating it at higher temperature (42-43 degree C) and proved that inoculation of such bacilli in animals induced specific protection against anthrax means develop immunity against anthrax.
(e) He studied on anthrax, chicken cholera and hydrophobia.
(f) He was unable to isolate any micro organism from man and dog but he preposed that causative agents of rabies was too small to be seen by naked eyes.

Louis Pasteur developed vaccine of hydrophobia. It marked as milestone in development of immunization.

 2. Joseph Lister(1827-1912)

Joseph Lister(1827-1912)

 

He was a professor of surgery in Glasgow Royal Infirmary. He applied  Pasteur’s work and introduce antiseptic techniques in surgery (1867) effecting a pronounced drop in mortality and morbidity due to surgical sepsis.
 
His antiseptic techniques involved use of carbolic acid.

3. Robert koch (1843-1910)

Robert Koch(1843-1910)
He was a german general practioner. His contribution are-  

(A) He perfected bacteriological techniques and introduced method of isolation of pure strains of bacteria.

(B)  He introduced methods of obtaining bacteria in pure culture using solid media (agar-agar)

(C) He introduced staining techniques.

(D) He discoverd  anthrax bacillus (1876), tubercle bacillus (1882) cholera  vibrio (1883).

koch postulates – koch postulates are the conditions which was fulfilled by  the causative agents of infectious disease. if this conditions are not fulfilled by the micro organism it cant be considered as causative agents for the specific disease. These are as follows-

(A) the organism should be constantly associated with the lesions of disease 

(B) it should be possible to isolate organism in pure culture media from the lesions of the disease 

(C) it should produced is similar disease in laboratory animal.

(D) same organism should be found from the lesions produced in the laboratory animals 

(E) An additional criteria is introduced subsequently requires that there should be the presence of specific antibody in the serum of patient against the organism.

It is not always possible to satisfy all the postulate in every case lepra bacillus is an important example of not fulfilling the Koch’s postulate 

Koch’s phenomenon – Robert koch observed that guineapig already infected with  tubercle bacillus responded with exaggerated inflammatory response when injected with the tubercle bacillus or its protein. This hypersensitivity reaction is called  Koch’s phenomenon.

4. Paul Ehrlich – His contributions are as follows

Paul Rhrlich

 

(1) Applied stains  to cells and tissues for study their functions.

(2) reported the acid fast nature of tubercle bacillus.

(3) proposed side chain theory of antibody production.

(4) discovered salvarsan- magic bullet which is arsenic compound destroys spirochete of syphllis.

Later he discovered neo-salvarsan and thus he created a new branch of medicine known as chemotherapy.

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